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In 2016, the republic’s foreign trade turnover amounted to USD 24309.4 million, compared to the previous year - 97.5 percent, including USD 8461.5 million (88.6 percent) with the CIS countries, USD 15847.9 million (103.1 percent) with other countries. The volume of exports was USD 12178.7 million, that of imports - USD 12130.7 million.

In comparison with 2000, the foreign trade turnover in 2016 increased by 3.9 times. The share in foreign trade of the CIS countries was 34.8 percent, other countries - 65.2 percent.

If the volume of exports in 2000 was USD 3264.7 million, then in 2016 it reached USD 12178.7 million, and the growth rate rose 3.7 times. In 2016 the share of the CIS countries in total exports was 36.3 percent, other countries - 63.7 percent.

In 2000, the volume of imports was USD 2947.4 million, in 2016 it increased to USD 12130.7 million, and the growth rate rose 4.1 times. In 2016, the share of the CIS countries in total imports was 33.4 percent, other countries - 66.6 percent.

In 2000, the positive balance of exports and imports was USD 317.3 million, in 2016 it amounted to USD 48 million (Table 1).

Table 1

Foreign trade turnover of Uzbekistan in 2000-2016

USD mln.

 

2000

2016

2016

to 2000,

in %

Foreign trade turnover

6212,1

24309,4

3,9 t.

CIS countries

2297,8

8461,5

3,7t.

other countries

3914,3

15847,9

4,0 t.

Export

3264,7

12178,7

3,7 t.

CIS countries

1172,2

4415,3

3,8 t.

other countries

2092,5

7763,4

3,7 t.

Import

2947,4

12130,7

4,1 t.

CIS countries

1125,6

4046,2

3,6 р.

other countries

1821,8

8084,5

4,4 t.

Balance

317,3

48,0

х

CIS countries

46,6

369,1

х

other countries

270,7

-321,1

х

 

In 2016, Uzbekistan carried out foreign trade operations with 175 countries around the world and reached a positive balance with 86 countries.

If in 2000 the share of the CIS countries in foreign trade turnover was 37.0 percent, then in 2016 it amounted to 34.8 percent, the share of other countries increased from 63.0 to 65.2 percent respectively (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Share of CIS and other countries in foreign trade turnover
(in percentage terms)

The share of exports with the CIS countries increased from 35.9 percent in 2000 to 36.3 percent in 2016, and with other countries it decreased from 64.1 to 63.7 percent, respectively (Figure 2).

Figure 2

Share of CIS and other countries in exports
(in percentage terms)

The share of imports with the CIS countries in 2000 was 38.2 percent, in 2016 it decreased to 33.4 percent, with other countries it increased from 61.8 to 66.6 percent (Figure 3).

Figure 3

Share of CIS and other countries in imports
(in percentage terms)

Thanks to the diversification of the industrial structure in recent years, the structure of exports has changed in the republic and the increase in export of almost all groups of goods and services is observed. It should be noted that in comparison with previous years, the export of finished products predominated over the export of raw materials. In particular, in the structure of exports the share of cotton fiber in 2000 was 27.5 percent, in 2016 it was 5.2 percent, ferrous and nonferrous metals - from 6.6 to 5.8 percent. The share of exports of food products increased from 5.4 to 5.7 percent; chemical products and articles thereof - from 2.9 to 6.9 percent; energy and oil products - from 10.3 to 14.1 percent; services - from 13.7 to 26.3 percent, and other goods - from 30.2 to 34.2 percent (Figure 4).

Figure 4

Structure of exports and imports of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Among the CIS countries, the main foreign trade partners are Russia and Kazakhstan, among other countries - China, Turkey, Afghanistan, Iran and the Republic of Korea.

Currently, almost 2000 types of goods and services are exported to more than 168 countries (including countries in Europe, CIS, Asia, North and South America, Africa and Australia). Since 2000, the number of export partner countries has expanded to 31 (Figure 5).

Figure 5

Major export partners of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Role of small business and private enterprise in exports

Thanks to the implementation of comprehensive systemic measures to deepen market reforms, improve the business environment, promote competition and protect private property, the number of small businesses in various sectors increased in recent years. State support for export-oriented small businesses and private enterprise contributed to the growth of exports.

Figure 6

Share of small enterprise in export

As the dynamics of statistical indicators shows, the role of small business and private enterprise in the socio-economic development of the country increases year by year.

In 2016, small business and private enterprise entities exported goods (works, services) to the amount of USD 3223.2 million (26.5 percent of total exports), which is 80.8 percent more compared to 2010 and almost 10 times more than in 2000.

Despite the fact that most of the enterprises specialize in the provision of services and occupy about 45 percent in the export of small businesses, their activities also cover a wide range of production segments.

Among the main exported products are both fresh and processed fruit and vegetables and finished textiles and leather goods, modern construction and finishing materials, mechanical devices, electrical machines and household goods.

Figure 7

In 2016, more than 3000 small businesses exported goods to 154 countries.

The leader in the number of enterprises engaged in foreign trade, and in their revenues from export activities is the city of Tashkent. More than 1150 entrepreneurs provided about 15 percent of exports in 2016, which is 18.3 percent of total export of the city.

The second and third places are occupied by Tashkent and Samarkand regions. By the number of small enterprises and microfirms operating in foreign markets, they cover about 10 percent and slightly more than 9 percent respectively.

Figure 8

Share of regions in export of small business1)

1) Excluding data not distributed by regions

Andizhan, Fergana and Namangan regions have a slightly lower share. In the total regional exports the volume of small business exports of Namangan region is 87.4 percent, Andizhan region - 72.0 percent.

Figure 8

Share of small business exports in total volume of regional exports

The increase in export supply is a significant resource for the development of the country. Despite the presence of individual business entities carrying out a stable foreign economic activity, in general, the export opportunities of enterprises are not fully realized. Speaking of the reasons, one can name the lack of information on the opportunities and requirements of foreign markets, high competition abroad, as well as the difficulties in communication with foreign partners.

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