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 Statistical analysis of the key indicators of agricultural sector of Uzbekistan in 2000-2016

Gross agricultural output is a generalized indicator of the volume of production produced by the entities engaged in agricultural activities, and which is the value of the volumes of crop and livestock production in the reporting period.

As a result of implemented measures to reform agriculture in order to diversify production, improve land reclamation condition, introduce modern highly effective agricultural technologies and strengthen the material and technical basis of farms, the volume of gross agricultural output in 2016 was 47486,1 billion soums (the growth in 2,7 times in comparison with 2000), of which the volume of crop production - 29042,4 billion soums (2,8 times) and that of livestock production - 18443,7 billion soums (2,6 times). In 2010-2016 the volume of agricultural production steadily increased, the growth was 6-7 percent per year (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Growth rates of gross agricultural output in 2000-2016

The analysis of agricultural production by types of farms showes that year after year the share of farm enterprises increases and that of organizations engaged in agricultural activities decreases.

Reduction of land areas of operating low-profit agricultural organizations of the republic, as well as the creation of multi-profile farm enterprises with a strong material and technical resources on their basis has affected the increase in the share of farm enterprises in the total volume of gross agricultural output to 32,9 percent in 2016 against 5,5 percent in 2000 and the decrease in the share of organizations engaged in agricultural activities to 2,0 percent in 2016 against 27,8 percent in 2000 (Figure 2).

Figure 2

Distribution of gross agricultural output by types of farms in 2016

When analyzing the distribution of the shares of the gross agricultural output by regions and type of farm, it was observed that in 2016 the highest indicators in all regions belong to dekhkan (private) farms. The highest figures are in Surkhandarya region (73.9 percent), Navoi region (71.9 percent) and Bukhara region (70.8 percent).

The analysis of the share of farm enterprises in gross agricultural output in farms of all types showed that the highest indicators are in Samarkand region (39.9 percent), Syrdarya region (37.5 percent) and Kashkadarya region (37.1 percent) (Figure 3)..

Figure 3

Distribution of gross agricultural output by type of farm in 2016
(share in farms of all types, in percentage terms)

Also, in the structure of gross agricultural output the share of crop production increased to 61,2 percent in 2016 against 50,2 percent in 2000, and that of livestock production decreased to 38,8 percent against 49,8 percent respectively (Figure 4).

Figure 4

Structure of gross agricultural output in 2000-2016
(in percentage terms)

Sown area under agricultural crops is recorded separately by main crops, reseedings, breakcrops, interrow crops.

Figure 5

Total sown area under agricultural crops in 2000-2016
(thousand hectares)

Figure 6

Sown area under main agricultural crops in 2000-2016
(thousand hectares)

Figure 7

Area under fruit and berries and vineyards in 2000-2016
(thousand hectares)

The data showed that if in 2000 the share of areas under main agricultural crops of farms enterprises in farms of all types was 5.0-20.7 percent, then in 2016 - 21.4 -99.2 percent respectively.

For dekhkan (private) farms this indicator amounted to 12.1-78.2 percent in 2000, 12.5-77.7 percent in 2016, for organizations engaged in agricultural activities - 16.8-79,3 percent in 2000 , 0.8-8.4 in 2016 percent respectively.

The analysis showed that the main area under grains and raw cotton remains at the disposal of farm enterprises and that under potatoes, vegetables, melons, fruit and grapes – farm enterprises and dekhkan (private) farms (Table 1).

Table 1

Distribution of area under main agricultural crops by type of farm in 2000-2016
(share in farms of all types, in percentage terms)

 

Farm enterprises

 

Dekhkan
(private) farms

Organizations engaged in agricultural activities

 

2000

2016

2000

2016

2000

2016

Grains

15,8

85,4

12,1

12,5

72,1

2,1

Cotton

20,7

99,2

79,3

0,8

Potatoes

5,0

21,4

78,2

77,7

16,8

0,9

Vegetables

6,5

36,5

66,7

61,9

26,8

1,6

Melons

17,6

53,9

42,0

44,1

40,4

2,0

Fruit

7,1

61,5

28,8

30,1

64,1

8,4

Grapes

5,8

65,1

21,9

31,2

72,3

3,7

 

As a result of the measures implemented in 2000-2016 to optimize the structure of sown area under agricultural crops, in 2016 compared to 2000 the size of sown area under grains increased by 75,4 thousand hectares, potatoes by 32,4 thousand hectares, vegetables by 76,1 thousand hectares, gourds by 21,9 thousand hectares, fruit and berries by 75,6 thousand hectares, vineyards by 11,2 thousand hectares, while area under industrial crops decreased by 178,6 thousand hectares, fodder crops by 95,5 thousand hectares (Figures 7 and 8).

Figure 8

Share of sown area under main agricultural crops to total sown area
(in percentage terms)

The analysis of the change in the structure of sown area under agricultural crops to the total sown area in 2000-2016 showed the increase in production of grains from 42,7 percent to 45,6 percent, potatoes from 1,4 percent to 2,3 percent, vegetables from 3,4 percent to 5,5 percent, gourds from 1,0 percent to 1,6 percent and the decrease in production of industrial crops from 40,0 percent to 36,0 percent, fodder crops from 11,4 percent to 9,0 percent (Figure 8).

Gross harvest of agricultural crops – products harvested from the total sown area under all agricultural crops (main crops, reseedings, breakcrops, interrow crops). Gross harvest of agricultural crops is registered in weight before treating and summarized separately for each type of crop as well as groups of crop.

As a result of further implementation of systematic measures to increase the production of food crops and in order to meet the population's needs for food products in 2016 farms of all types produced 8261,3 thousand tons of grains (2,0 times more compared to 2000), 2958,4 thousand tons of potatoes (4.0 times), 11275,8 tons of vegetables (4.3 times), 2044,9 thousand tons of gourds (4,5 times), 3042,8 thousand tons of fruit and berries (3.8 times), 1735,8 thousand tons of grapes (2,8 times). In 2016, 2959,0 thousand tons of raw cotton were produced, or 98,6 percent to 2000 (Figure 9).

Figure 9

Production of main crop products
(thousand tons)

If in 2000 the share of farm enterprises producing the main types of plant growing products in farms of all types was 4.2-18.3 percent, then in 2016 - 23.1-99.5 percent respectively.

These indicators for dekhkan (private) farms amounted to 18.6-80.1 percent in 2000, 18.3-76.1 percent in 2016, for organizations engaged in agricultural activities15.7-81.7 percent in 2000, 0.5-2.1 percent in 2016 respectively.

The analysis shows that the main producers of grains and raw cotton are farm enterprises, those of potatoes, vegetables, melons, fruit and grapes - farm enterprises and dekhkan (private) farms (Table 2).

Table 2

Distribution of production volumes of main plant growing products by type of farm in 2000-2016
(share in farms of all types, in percentage terms)

 

Farm enterprises

 

Dekhkan (private) farms

Organizations engaged in agricultural activities

 

2000

2016

2000

2016

2000

2016

Grains

14,4

80,4

18,6

18,3

67,0

1,3

Cotton

18,3

99,5

81,7

0,5

Potatoes

4,2

23,1

80,1

76,1

15,7

0,8

Vegetables

4,9

34,8

75,0

64,3

20,1

0,9

Melons

11,2

49,5

63,5

48,9

25,3

1,6

Fruit

4,3

45,8

58,9

52,1

36,8

2,1

Grapes

4,7

53,1

33,0

45,4

62,3

1,5

 

As a result of expanding the size of area under food crops in order to provide rapidly growing population of the country with food products, 21,0 million tons of fruit and vegetables were produced in 2016 (Figure 9).

Figure 10

Production of fruit and vegetables in 2016

Yield capacity of agricultural crops is an average yield per unit (100m2, hectare) of sown area. The average yield capacity of agricultural crops is determined by dividing the gross crop yield of main crops (excluding reseedings, breakcrops, interrow crops) into the harvested area.

The result of the analysis of average yield capacity of agricultural crops per 1 hectare showed the increase in the yield of grains by 16,8 centers in 2016 compared to 2000, cotton by 1,6 centers, potatoes by 95,8 centers, vegetables by 87,3 centers, gourds by 77,0 centers, fruit by 77,2 centers, grapes by 78,8 centers respectfully (Table 3).

Table 3

Yeild capacity of main agricultural crops
(centner/hectare)

 

2000

2005

2010

2015

2016

Grains and legumes - total

28,2

40,7

44,2

45,3

45,0

Cotton

21,8

25,3

25,4

25,9

23,4

Potatoes

129,3

170,3

194,9

219,1

225,1

Vegetables, total

183,8

215,8

252,5

271,0

271,1

Gourds

132,4

169,1

192,6

203,6

209,4

Fruit and berries

56,9

62,3

92,6

128,1

134,1

Grapes

63,1

64,7

90,8

133,1

141,9

 

Figure 11

Production of main agricultural products per capita in 2000-2016
(kilograms, eggs – pieces)

The implementation of measures aimed at increasing the level of the provision of the population with agricultural products led to the increase in per capita production of grain by 100.0 kilograms, potatoes by 63.0 kilograms, vegetables by 247.0 kilograms, gourds by 46.0 kilograms, fruit by 64.0 kilograms, grapes by 30.0 kilograms, meat by 34.0 kilograms, milk by 158.0 kilograms, eggs by 142 pieces (Figure 11).

Number of livestock and poultry – includes, in physical units (heads), all agricultural animals and poultry available on farms, regardless of whether livestock is on pastures or in other places outside the farm.

As of January 1, 2017 in farms of all types the total number of cattle was 12181,4 thousand heads (2,3 times more than as January 1, 2001), including 4217,3 thousand heads of cows (180,0 percent), 19697.9 thousand heads of sheep and goats (2,2 times), 85,5 thousand heads of pigs (99,7 percent), 221,4 thousand heads of horses (151,3 percent), 17,4 thousand heads of camels (113,0 percent), 67037,7 thousand heads of poultry (4,6 times), 428,9 thousand pieces of bee colonies (3,0 times) (Figure - 12).

Figure 12

Number of livestock and poultry as of January 1, 2001 and 2017
(mln. heads)

The given data of the tables showed that during the period from 2000 to 2016 the basic types of livestock and poultry or 62.0-94.5 percent fall on the share of dekhkan (private) farms.

In farm enterprises and organizations engaged in agricultural activities, the share of basic types of livestock and poultry in 2000-2016 varied between 0.9-26.4 percent (Table 4).

Table 4

Change in number of livestock and poultry by type of farm in 2000-2016
(share in farms of all types, in percentage terms)

 

Farm enterprises

 

Dekhkan
(private) farms

Organizations engaged in agricultural activities

 

2000

2016

2000

2016

2000

2016

Cattle

3,7

4,7

86,2

94,1

10,1

1,2

of which

cow

2,4

4,6

89,9

94,5

7,7

0,9

Sheep and goats

2,2

7,7

67,4

83,9

30,4

8,4

Poultry

2,9

11,6

62,0

62,0

35,1

26,4

 

In 2016 there were produced 2172,5 tons of meat (the growth - by 2,6 times to 2000), 9703,4 thousand tons of milk (2,7 times), 6152.5 million of eggs (4,9 times), 37103,0 tons of wool (2,3 times), 1055,4 thousand tons of karakul skins (141,2 percent), 12050,0 tons of honey (4,5 times), 26355,6 tons of cocoons (159,9 percent) (Figure 13).

Figure 13

Production of main livestock products in 2000-2016
(thousand tons; million pieces)

 Analyzed data showed that in the period from 2000 to 2016 the share of dekhkan (private) farms in production of the basic types of livestock products was 57.7-95.7 percent and that of farm enterprises and organizations engaged in agricultural activities - 0.7-31.6 percent (Table 5).

Table 5

Distribution of production volumes of the basic livestock products by type of farm in 2000-2016
(share in farms of all types, in percentage terms)

 

Farm enterprises

 

Dekhkan
(private) farms

Organizations engaged in agricultural activities

 

2000

2016

2000

2016

2000

2016

Meat

1,3

2,9

91,1

94,4

7,6

2,7

Milk

1,5

3,6

93,6

95,7

4,9

0,7

Eggs

1,0

10,7

59,9

57,7

39,1

31,6

Wool

1,1

8,0

74,3

85,5

24,6

6,5

Astrakhan

1,1

5,4

32,1

83,5

66,8

11,1

 

Agricultural activity of farm enterprises

Farm enterprise is an independent economic entity producing agricultural products using land plots leased.

In accordance with the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan of March 16, 2010, No. 47 "On Results of Optimizing the Size of Land Plots in Farm Enterprises" 66134 farm enterprises were established.

As of January 1, 2017, the number of operating farm enterprises was 132356, the total land area allotted to them was 5806,2 thousand hectares and land area per farm enterprise averaged 43,9 hectares (Figures 14 and 15).

Figure 14

Number of farm enterprises in 2000-2016 (units)

Figure 15

Land area per farm in 2000-2016

In 2000-2016 in farms of all types the share of farm enterprises in area under grains increased from 15,8 percent to 85,4 percent, cotton from 20,7 percent to 99,2 percent, potatoes from 5,0 percent to 21,4 percent, vegetables from 6,5 percent to 36,6 percent, gourds from 17,5 percent to 53,8 percent, fruit and berries from 7,1 percent to 61,5 percent, vineyards from 5,8 percent to 65,1 percent (Figure 16).

Figure 16

Share of farm enterprises in farms of all types
(in percentage)

The results of the analysis show that cotton, grain, fruit and vegetable growing and other branches of crop production in farm enterprises are developing at a high rate.

In 2000-2016 in farms of all types the share of farm enterprises in grain production increased from 14,4 percent to 80,4 percent, raw cotton from 18,3 percent to 99,5 percent, potatoes from 4,2 percent to 23,1 percent, vegetables from 4,9 percent to 34,8 percent, melons from 11,2 percent to 49,5 percent, fruit from 4,3 percent to 45,8 percent, grapes from 4,7 percent to 53,1 percent.

Agricultural activity of dekhkan (private) farms

Dekhkan farm is a family small-scale farm that produces and sells agricultural products on the basis of the personal labor of family members on the personal plot of land given to the head of the family with right inherit it to his heirs.

In 2016 the number of dekhkan (private) farms totaled 4769,0 thousand units, the growth - 147,0 percent compared to 2000, 104,9 percent compared to 2005, and 100,8 percent compared to 2015 (Figure 17).

Figure 17

Number of dekhkan (private) farms in 2000-2016
(thousand units)

As of January 1, 2001, the share of cattle of dekhkan (private) farms in farms of all categories was 86,2 percent, as of January 1, 2017 - 94,1 percent.

In the analyzed period it is also observed the increase in the above share: cows - from 89.9 to 94,5 percent, sheep and goats - from 67,4 to 83,8 percent, pigs - from 44,3 percent to 78,7 percent, horses - from 70,2 percent to 85,0 percent, camels - from 33,1 percent to 62,4 percent, bee colonies - from 50,0 percent to 74,1 percent (Figure 18).

Figure 18

Share of dekhkan (private) farms in farms of all types in 2000-2016
(in percentage)

The share of production of meat of dekhkan (private) farms in farms of all types in 2000 and 2016 was 91,1 and 94,4 percent, milk – 93,7 and 95,6 percent, eggs – 59,9 and 57,3 percent, wool – 74,3 and 85,4 percent, karakul pelts – 32,1 and 83,7 percent, honey - 55,3 and 79,2 percent respectively.

Organizations engaged in agricultural activities

Organization engaged in agricultural activities is a legal entity that owns land, as well as other separate property and produces crop and livestock products and services agricultural production.

In 2000-2016 in farms of all types the share of sown areas under grains of organizations engaged in agricultural activities decreased from 72,1 percent to 2,2 percent, cotton from 79,3 to 0,8 percent, potatoes from 16,7 to 0,9 percent, vegetables from 26,8 percent to 1,6 percent, gourds from 40,7 percent to 2,0 percent, fruit and berries from 64,0 percent to 8,4 percent, vineyards from 72,2 percent to 3,7 percent .

In the analyzed period, in farms of all types the share of cattle of organizations engaged in agricultural activities decreased from 10,1 percent to 1,2 percent, cows from 7,7 percent to 0,9 percent, sheep and goats from 30,4 percent to 8,4 percent, pigs from 45,1 to 8,5 percent, horses from 24,3 percent to 5,5 percent, camels from 63,6 percent to 31,7 percent, poultry from 35,1 percent to 26,4 percent, bee colonies from 43,4 percent to 7,8 percent.

Decrease in sown area under main agricultural crops, livestock and poultry in the analyzed period in turn caused a decrease in the output of crop and livestock products (Figure 19).

Figure 19

Share of main agricultural products produced by organizations engaged in agricultural activities in farms of all types
(in percentage)

 Conclusion

During the years of independence, the republic carried out deep reforms with the introduction of market principles and a complete change in the forms of ownership in the agricultural sector, as a result of which new forms of farming appeared and they were reflected in the development of the agrarian economics.

The main principles of the strategy for the development of agriculture are move away from the cotton monoculture, self-sufficiency in food products, primarily grains, as well as achieving food independence.

As a result of the complex of measures implemented within the framework of strategic development of agriculture to diversify production and ensure food independence, in recent years the industry has achieved high rates.

In order to provide the population of the country with food products by expanding the sown area under food crops, cotton area under cotton has been decreased. The decrease in the sown area under fodder crops is explained by the fact that livestock and poultry are provided with strong forage reserves due to reseedings, breakcrops, interrow crops.

In the republic targeted measures to gradually optimize the structure of sown area by expanding the area under food crops are considered, and measures are also being implemented to stimulate the increase in the number of livestock and poultry in dekhkan (private) farms and farm enterprises.

The results of the analysis show that cotton, grain, fruit and vegetable growing and other branches of plant growing are developing at a high rate in farm enterprises, while animal production - in dekhkan (private) farms.

It is observed that the provision of the population of the republic with the products of plant growing is carried out mainly by farm enterprises, while provision with livestock products - by dekhkan (private) farms.

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