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1. Methodological aspects of monitoring the living standards

In order to study the living standards and welfare of the population of the Republic of Uzbekistan the state statistics bodies conduct a household sampling survey each year.

In turn, the methodology of the household survey is based on the recommendations of the World Bank and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, it is conducted throughout the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the number of households surveyed is 10000 units per year. The size of this sampling survey is 0.2 percent of the total number of households in the republic.

Within the framework of the household sampling surveys conducted in 2016 more than 50 thousand people were covered, and it was revealed that the average size of one household was 5.1 persons. Out of the total number of the surveyed population 48.7 percent were men and 51.3 percent - women. The share of children under the age of 16 was 30.8 percent, the population aged 16 and over - 69.2 percent, and the working-age population - 58.8 percent to the total population in the republic.

2. Trend of changes in incomes and expenditures of the population

The results of measures taken by the government aimed at the consistent increase in incomes and living standards and strengthening of social support of citizens are reflected in the continuous increase in per capita incomes, wages and pensions.

According to the data below, in 2000-2016, it is possible to observe a trend in the growth of incomes, wages and pensions per capita. But in recent years, the growth rates of wages and pensions, which are considered to be one of the main sources in the structure of income, are declining and this phenomenon has had an impact on reducing the total income of the population.

Table 1

Changes in per capita income, wages and pensions in 2000-2016






I. Total income per capita, thsd. soums





real growth to the corresponding period of previous year, in %





II. Nominal average annual wages and salaries, thsd. soums





to the corresponding period of previous year, in %





III. Average pension, thsd. soums





to the corresponding period of previous year, in %






 Over the past period, there has been a gradual increase in per capita income and in 2016 compared to 2000 it actually increased by 11.7 times. Also, for this period there was an increase in the average salary and pensions by 23.6 and 18.1 times respectively.

Figure 1

Dynamics of growth in per capita incomes, wages and pensions compared to 2000, times

In turn, in the structure of incomes the share of income from work was 73.3 percent (in 2010 - 69.9 percent), income in the form of transfers - 20.3 percent (in 2010 - 25.9 percent), property income is 4.0 percent (in 2010 - 2.4 percent), income from own production of services for own consumption 2.4 percent (in 2010 - 1.8 percent). The main factor contributing to the growth of the share of income from work is the creation of new jobs provided as a result of targeted activities aimed at increasing the employment of the population.

Figure 2

Structure of total incomes of the population in the Republic of Uzbekistan
in 2010-2016

(in percentage terms)

Also, as a result of implementing targeted measures aimed at supporting small business and entrepreneurship entities, the share of incomes received from small business, which in 2016 amounted to 55.2 percent, increases year after year.

Figure 3

Share of incomes received from small business in the structure of total incomes of the population in the Republic of Uzbekistan
(in percentage terms)

Although the growth in nominal per capita total incomes of the population, which was observed in all regions at least 10 percent, based on the territorial peculiarity the highest per capita income falls on the city of Tashkent and Navoi region, followed by Bukhara, Tashkent, Syrdarya and Khorezm regions.

Figure 4

Total incomes per capita by regions
(thousand soums)

The lowest average annual income per capita is observed in the Republic of Karakalpakstan (3193.5 thousand soums).

In the period under review, there are also positive changes in the income distribution. The Gini coefficient reflecting the uniformity of income distribution among population groups in the republic decreased from 0.39 in 2000 to 0.26 in 2016. This indicates a significant decrease in the level of differentiation in the incomes of the population.

These changes can also be viewed with the help of other indicators, that is, in terms of decile and quintile groups according to the incomes of the population. In particular, it is possible to give an example of the fact that in 2000-2016, one can see the tendency of decreasing the decile coefficient from 21.1 to 6.4, and the quintile one from 9.9 to 4.1.

Figure 5

Trend of changes in coefficient of funds in the republic, in times

Simultaneously with the growth of the population's incomes, the country also creates conditions for the effective use of these incomes, which are achieved by localizing the production of consumer goods and increasing their production and expanding the types of services provided to the population.

Also, from year to year the structure of consumer expenditures is optimized, where expenditures on food products become stable, and the share of expenditures on non-food products and services increases. These changes can be seen in the figure below.

If in 2016 as compared to 2000 in the structure of consumer spending the share of expenditures on food products decreased by 14.1 units, during this period the share of expenditures on non-food products increased by 7.6 units and the share of expenditures on services increased by 6.5 units.

Figure 6

Structural changes in consumer expenditures in 2000-2016
(in percentage terms)

Interpreting the structure of consumer expenditures more widely through the figure below, it can be seen that the population spent the most money on food products (44.3 percent), non-food products (22 percent), clothes and footwear (10.3 percent), utilities (7.7 percent).

Figure 7

3. Consumption of food products by population

Despite the growth of the average number of the resident population in 2000-2016 by 29.2 percent, the population's income grew dynamically over the past 16 years, which helped to strengthen financial opportunities and increase the basic food consumption. In particular, consumption of vegetable amounted to 277.2 kilograms a year, fruit - 148.8 kilograms, eggs - 213.6 pieces, meat and meat products - 44.4 kilograms, milk and dairy products - 279.6 liters, potatoes - 56.4 kilograms, sugar - 32.4 kilograms, vegetable oil - 24.0 kilograms.

Figure 8

Consumption of food products per capita in 2000-2016
(in kilograms)

It should be specially noted that if in the first years of our country's independence the necessary food products like wheat, meat, potatoes, meat and dairy products, etc, were imported from other countries, today, as a result of the accelerated development of production not only the needs of the country's population for these products are met but they are also exported to many foreign countries.

In 2000-2016, per capita consumption of basic meat and meat products increased by 1.3 times, milk and dairy products - 1.7 times, eggs - 4.5 times, vegetables and melons - 2.2 times, potatoes - 1,6 times, sugar, including confectionery - 2 times, fruit and berries - 3,5 times, vegetable oil - 2 times.

4. Tendency of changes in provision of population with durable goods

In 2000-2016, changes were observed both in the level of provision of the population with durable goods and in their quality, and a special feature is that the main part of such consumer goods is currently produced in the country.

In particular, according to the results of 2016, the availability of own motor cars per 100 households was 43 units. The number of TV sets per 100 households was 153 units, and in comparison with 2000 it increased by 1.7 times.

Figure 9

Availability of motor cars and TV sets, per 100 households

The number of refrigerators and freezers is 102 units (growth in 1.2 times), air conditioners - 34 units (3.0 times), electric vacuum cleaners - 54 units (1.8 times), and washing machines - 80 units (1.1 times) per 100 households.

Figure 10

Availability of refrigerators and freezers, air conditioners, electric vacuum cleaners, washing machines per 100 households

In addition, there is a rapid penetration into everyday life of personal computers, laptops (netbooks), tablets, smartphones, and mobile phones. The expansion of the capabilities of these devices day by day along with the implementation of communications, information exchange and immediate notification on world news make it possible to actively participate in the social life of the population.

According to the 2016 final data if the number of personal computers per 100 households was 49 units (in 2000 - 0.2 units), during 2000-2016 the number of mobile phones increased by 13.6 times, and by the end of 2016 - 246 units, an average of 2.5 mobile phones per each household.

Figure 11

Availability of personal computers and mobile phones per 100 households

According to the data obtained it can be concluded that today, along with the necessary goods in everyday life, the population still has a need for electric vacuum cleaners, washing machines, computers and air conditioners.

In turn, the data prove that for enterprises producing such goods and organizations importing goods from abroad the republic has a large part of the unoccupied consumer market.

Along with indicators of per capita incomes of the population, changes in the structure of expenditures, consumption of basic food products and provision of durable goods, it is used indicators characterizing the conditions and standards of life, the provision of well-equipped and modern residential buildings, the development and improvement of the habitat of the population , availability of necessary infrastructure and its effectiveness, education on the basis of modern requirements and satisfaction of the health system.

Information service

Head of information service Akrom Sultonov

Tugmani bosing Tinglash