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Post-graduate education is aimed to address the needs of society in highly-qualified scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff. It includes doctoral studies and independent research in higher education establishments and research institutions (institutes of senior research fellows and independent researchers).

Figure 1

Number of institutions providing doctoral studies (2000-2016)

By 2016, the number of institutions providing doctoral studies amounted to 128 units and increased by 1.6 times compared to 2000. In 2016, 65 scientific organizations and 63 higher educational establishments are among the institutions that carried out the training of doctoral candidates.

Figure 2

Number of doctoral students (2000-2016)

The introduction of the one-tier system of postgraduate education with the defense and award of the Doctorate degree in accordance with the Presidential Decree №4456 from 24.07.2012, led to an increase in the number of doctoral students. In particular, the number of doctoral students has increased more than 4 times in 2016 compared to 2000 from 331 to 1370 people.

In order to improve the quality and effectiveness of the training system and certification of highly-qualified scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel, further improve the post-graduate education sphere and expand opportunities for the full realization of the intellectual potential of young people in research activities, according to the Presidential Decree №4958 of 16.02.2017, two-level system of postgraduate education was introduced, which includes a "basic doctorate" - with the defense of the thesis and award of PhD degree in the relevant field of science and "doctorate" - with a defense of thesis and awarding the degree of Doctor of Science (Doctor of Science) in the relevant field of science.

Table 1

Dynamics of doctorate students by field of science (2000-2016)

 

2000

2005

2010

2016

         

Total

334

183

217

1370

Including sciences :

       

Natural sciences

82

51

50

309

Technical sciences

26

12

21

167

Medical sciences

83

45

30

113

Agricultural sciences

11

8

10

154

Social sciences

93

47

70

348

Human sciences

39

20

36

279

 

 In recent years, the number of senior researchers by field of science has been growing rapidly. In particular, the highest increase in the number of doctoral students in 2000-2016 was observed in agricultural sciences (14 times more than in 2000), humanitarian (7.2 times) and technical sciences (6.4 times).

The following graph shows the changes in the doctoral students by field of science.

Figure 3


The number of students enrolled in institutions that provide doctoral study programmes by field of science (2012-2016)

2. IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC-RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Research and development activities include systematic activities which are based on existing knowledge obtained as a result of research or practical experience, and is aimed at creating new materials, products, processes, devices, services, systems or methods. The development includes: design, engineering and technological works.

Figure 4

Number of organizations engaged in R&D (2010-2016)

The number of organizations engaged in R&D in 2016 increased by 136 compared to 2010 and amounted to 437 units. The volume of R&D performed on own account in 2016 amounted to 396 billion soums and increased by 3 times compared to 2010.

Table 2

Expenditure on R&D across sectors by fields of science in 2016, million soums

 

Total

Including:

Natural sciences

Technical sciences

Medical sciences

Agricultural sciences

Social sciences

Human sciences

Total

440285,2

143634,3

154625,7

28737,3

36706,1

47288,8

29293,1

including:

             

State sector

178812,9

83044,5

21871,8

15171,9

26481

15161,2

17082,5

Business sector

173622,6

42930,8

111779,5

6199,3

5334

6929,1

449,9

Higher education sector

82424,6

17659

18683,3

7254,8

4891

22427,8

11508,5

Private and non-profit sector

5425,1

-

2291,0

111,2

-

2770,7

252,2

 

 In 2016, the natural sciences (46.4 percent of total expenses) accounted for the bulk of the expenditures on R&D in state sector organizations, technical sciences (64.4 percent) - in the business sector, the social sciences (27.2% and 51.1% respectively) - in the higher education and the private non-profit sectors.

Table 3

Financing source for the costs of the R&D activities performed on own account of organizations (2000-2016)

 

2000

2005

2010

2016

Expenditures on R&D performed on own account, million soums

11210,5

36448,1

116121,7

428485,5

Including:

Total state budget

4444,1

16307,8

70457,9

247220,2

Resources of off-budget funds

166,0

2365,2

5824,6

18084,9

Own funds

1594,1

6273,8

12409,8

95424,1

Customer funds

4962,8

11289,4

24553,3

64188,9

Funds of foreign sources

46,5

211,9

2876,1

3567,4

 

Over the past seventeen years, there have been significant changes in the structure of financing sources for R&D activities carried out by the scientific institutions of the Republic. In particular, financing of R&D carried out in 2000 was mainly due to the attracted funds of the customer (46.4 percent of total costs), but in recent years, the public funds (57, 7 percent) and own funds of organizations (22.3 percent) have been used for funding of R&D. In addition, the use of foreign sources and extra-budgetary funds has increased significantly.

The number of research specialists engaged in research and development has increased by 27.4 percent in 2016 compared to 2000 and amounted to 31966 people.

Table 4

Number of R&D personnel (2000-2016)

 

2000

2005

2010

2016

         

Scientific staff - total (including scientific and pedagogical staff of higher educational establishments)

 

36837

34094

36358

36984

including research specialists who carried out R&D

25083

26685

30343

31966

of them have a scientific degree:

       

Doctor of Science

2009

2353

2549

2242

PhD candidate

8192

8363

9254

8200

 

Figure 5

Number of researchers who carried out R&D by the field of science

In 2016, 26.2 percent (8391 people) of the total number of researchers were carried out scientific research in the field of natural sciences, 20.2 percent (6,457 people) in the humanities, 18.3 percent (5,852 people) in the social sciences, 35.2 percent (11266 people) in the field of technical, medical, agricultural sciences.

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