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Shodiev Bekhzod Sirojiddinovich
Head of the Department of Demography and Labor Statistics,
State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics

Yuldoshev Zoyir Toshkanovich
Head of the department for the formation and analysis of indicators of the balance of labor resources, employment and wages,
State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Effective introduction of market relations in the republic, ensuring employment of the population and achieving socio-economic development depend, first of all, on the effective use of existing labor resources.

Labor resources play an important role in the current processes of economic liberalization, and their importance in social and economic development can be seen at the micro, mesoscale and macro levels.

The role of labor resources at the micro level is determined by their role in the activities of the organization (enterprise) and their participation in production.

As you know, labor resources are the key factors of production, and all the resources that generate it are directly controlled by this factor.

The role of labor resources in the economy of regions and regions indicates its importance at the meso level.

Where labor resources are high in the country, production, industry, social and economic infrastructure and communications develop.

The role of labor resources at the macro level is based on their importance in the economy of the country as a whole and its recognition as a key asset.

Thanks to work in the country, tangible and intangible assets are created.

The subject of the given work (the author and the executor) is the person, that is a labor resource.

Thus, the importance of labor resources at all levels determines the scientific and economic significance of their research.

In the economic literature there are different opinions about the concept of "labor resources", and their generalization and unambiguous decision remain the subject of discussion.

Eastern thinking and teaching make a great contribution to the study and study of labor relations.

Because the first appearance of labor relations in writing and in the style of life can be directly attributed to the works of monuments and thinkers of Eastern culture.

In the era of Zoroastrianism, widespread in Asia, especially in the Central Asian region, special attention was paid to mankind and its work to the most ancient teachings and the Islamic religion.

In the Avesta, in the holy book of this teaching, the first interpretation of labor relations is expressed.

In addition, the ideas of ancient China (Confucius doctrine) and India (Manu-laws and Arkhasastra monuments) also occupy a special place in the formation of economic and labor ideas.

Work and people occupy a special place in the teachings and views of the great oriental thinkers, such scholars as Abu Nasr Farabi ("The City of Fazil People"), Abu Rayhon Beruni, Abu Ali Ibn Sino, Yusuf Khos Hodjib ("Kutadgu bilig").

Bakhouddin Nakshbandi's contribution to the development of labor relations in the East is huge.

It is enough just to say one of the words "Dil ba yoru, dast ba kor" (Let the soul be with God, hand in labor).

The basis of this expression is that people are encouraged to work, study and conduct research.

The great teachings of our great forefather Amir Timur were a turning point in the development of economic knowledge and labor relations in it.

The fact that the ideas put forward by Sahibkiran had practical life experience provided their scientific value.

His main scientific views are reflected in the "Timur's Code", in which he touches on the issues of governance of the state, economy and labor.

Particular attention in the fair policy and economic views of the great thinker Alisher Navoi ("Waqfia") and the great statesman Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur ("Mubain" and "Boburnoma") is paid to labor and human factors.

They highly appreciate the role of labor in the life of man and society and say that the main way of wealth and life is to work.

Thus, the study of the ancient Eastern doctrine, including the activities of the great scientists mentioned above, indicates that the role of the Eastern School of Economics in the creation and development of labor relations, scientific ideas and life relations is immeasurable.

These ideas and views can be regarded as scientific bases in the appearance of terms and concepts that are used in the modern economic literature.

As a result of the development of socio-economic relations, the meaning and content of economic concepts, such as "labor resources", "labor".

These concepts were widely used not only in the scientific and economic literature, but also in our daily practice.

Labor is considered in economic science as a complex of physical and spiritual abilities that people use in their work.

R.J. Ehrenberg and R.S. Smith consider: "That the labor force is those who are over 16 years old, those who are engaged in labor, those who are actively looking for work, and those who wish to apply for work after their dismissal ".

One of the founders of British political economy, A. Smith introduced into science the term "economic man".

In his opinion, the "economic man" seeks to improve his life by pursuing his own interests and goals.

Therefore, people try to choose an activity that has the most value in a market economy and of great benefit.

Only the "invisible hand", that is, free competition, simply integrates market laws into a regulated business system.

Therefore, the "economic man" works for the benefit of society, in its own interests.

American economist Crumm McConnell and senior Bryce separated the quantity and quality of labor as an important factor affecting economic growth.

According to their theory, the amount of labor resources is determined by the number of employed in the economy and their shares in the able-bodied population.

Indicators of improvement of health, professionalism, knowledge and interests of people are presented as an indicator of the impact of labor resources on productivity.

Labor is a complex of physical and spiritual abilities that a person uses in his work.

The term "labor force" is often used to refer to three values:

as an organism, a living person and as a set of physical and spiritual abilities, every time he uses the value of a particular consumer;

part of the population employed or looking for work - as a synonym for the economically active population;

as employees or employees of a particular enterprise.

At the same time, the word "labor" and "labor" have different options and should be used consciously and appropriately in their use.

Consequently, the concept of "labor resources" and "labor" is used in different ways and often not quite the same.

The difference between "labor resource" and "labor force" is the following:

The concept of "labor resources" and "labor" have different meanings, and the process of labor resources is transformed into several stages.

In the early stages, labor resources are a potential part of the workforce, which expands the experience with tools and weapons.

At the second stage, labor resources are distributed to workplaces.

Thus, physical and mental abilities will be spent on labor.

In this process, labor resources become workers.

In the third stage, the workforce spends time and money, and this blessed value is consumed.

With the end of labor, the labor force becomes economically inactive, but remains in the labor force.

Is there any similarity between the concepts of "labor resources" and "labor»?

Yes, there is. The similarity between labor resources and labor concepts is that two categories fall into their own ability to participate in social production.

When the term "human resources" is introduced into science»?

The term "labor resources" was first introduced in 1922 by the Russian scientist S. Strumilin.

This term is considered from the point of view of a centralized system of economy as a set of time-consuming labor.

Naturally, the question arises who is involved in labor resources?

Labor resources include the able-bodied population at working age, as well as employed persons younger and older than working age.

Now, we will analyze the concept of able-bodied population at working age..

In Uzbekistan, the able-bodied population includes:

Men aged 16 to 60 years;

Women aged 16 to 55 years.

However, not all the population of this age group is considered capable of working.

Therefore, the able-bodied population at the working age is determined by excluding non-working disabled persons of Groups I and II and persons receiving a retirement pension on preferential terms.

For example, according to preliminary data, the population of able-bodied age in 2017 in the Djizak region amounted to 780.3 thousand people, disabled disabled people of the first and second groups of working age, and persons receiving a retirement pension on preferential terms - 27.5 thousand people.

In 2017, the number of working-age population in the working-age of the Djizak region is 752.8 thousand people (752.8 = 780.3 - 27.5)).

The second category, which is part of the workforce, is employed persons who are younger and older than the working age.

For reference: Admission to work is allowed from sixteen years.

Persons, upon reaching the age of fifteen, may be recruited with the written consent of one of the parents or one of the persons substituting the parents (Article 77 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan).

Thus, working adolescents at the age of fifteen years are included in the category of workers younger than the able-bodied age.

According to the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the population over the working age includes women aged 55 and over, and men aged 60 and over.

Those who retired and continue to work are also part of the workforce.
Now, on an example we will understand in sources of formation of a manpower

For example, in 2017 the number of able-bodied population at working age in the Jizzakh region amounted to 752.8 thousand people, the number employed younger and older than working age - 3.5 thousand people.

Thus, in 2017 the number of labor resources in the Jizzakh region is 756.3 thousand people (756.3 = 752.8 + 3.5).

In the Republic of Uzbekistan, the balance of labor resources is developed every year.

The question arises, what is the linguistic meaning of the term "balance"?

The term "balance" comes from Latin bis - "twice", lanx - "scales" and literally means "two bowls" and is used as equality, balance.

Thus, when equality is used as an equilibrium, then the balance of labor resources reflects the equilibrium.

The balance of labor resources is the availability of labor resources and their distribution.

In the balance of labor resources, one cup of weights will be "forming", the second is the "distribution".

We explained the formation of human resources on different examples.

Now let's focus on the distribution of labor resources, that is, the second cup of the balance.

The country's labor resources are distributed to the economically active and economically inactive population.

For example, in 2017, the economically active population of the Djizak region was 492.6 thousand people, and economically inactive - 263.7 thousand people.

Thus, the labor force in the Djizak region is 756.3 thousand people (756.3 = 492.6 + 263.7).

Here's what we see in the balance sheet:

formation - 752.8 + 3.5 = 756.3;

distribution - 492.6 + 263.7 = 756.3.

The number of economically active population is the sum of the number of employed and unemployed.

For example, in 2017 the number employed in the Djizak region was 468.2 thousand people, and the unemployed population was 24.4 thousand people.

Thus, the economically active population of the Djizak region is 492.6 thousand people (492.6 = 468.2 + 24.4).

Employment is the activity of citizens, which does not contradict the legislation, which is related to the satisfaction of their personal and social needs, which gives them wages (labor income).

The number of employed in the economy consists of employed persons in various fields of economic activity.

In Djizzak region, in 2017, in the agricultural, forestry and fish farming sector the number of employed is 195.7 thousand people, in industry - 46.3 thousand people, construction - 31.2 thousand people and in other areas - 195.0 thousand people.

Thus, the number of employed in 2017 in the Jizzakh region was 468.2 thousand people (468.2 = 195.7 + 46.3 + 31.2 + 195.0).

Unemployed persons are persons who are officially registered as unemployed in accordance with the law, as well as temporarily unemployed persons of working age who do not have paid work or employment that earn income, independently seek work and are ready to start it as soon as this job is offered to them.

For example, in 2017, the economically active population in the Djizak region was 492.6 thousand people, the number of unemployed - 24.4 thousand people.

Thus, the unemployment rate in the Dzhizak region in 2017 was 5.0% (5.0% = (24.4 / 492.6) x 100%).

The economically inactive population is people who are not considered busy and unemployed.

These include students and students studying on a separate basis from production; non-working women caring for children; housewives and voluntarily unemployed people who receive income from movable and immovable property.

For example, in Jizzakh region in 2017, students and students studying with a margin of production, amount to 72 700 people, the number of unemployed women, taking care of children - 73,500 people, the number of housewives and voluntarily unemployed people who receive income from movable and immovable property, amounted to 117.5 thousand people.

Thus, the economically inactive population of the Djizak region was 263.7 thousand people (263.7 = 72.7 + 73.5 + 117.5).

So, if the amount of manpower in the country is clear, it should be used more efficiently.

What factors influence the effective use of labor resources?

The use of labor resources is influenced by the following factors:

1. Geographical and natural factors. Regions of the republic have different natural and geographical characteristics, which means that territorial labor markets are very sensitive to natural conditions.

For example, the high unemployment rate in the Aral Sea region is based on the environmental situation.

Moreover, the high share of the agricultural sector in the economy depends heavily on the seasonal and climatic factors of employment in the country.

Unfavorable weather conditions adversely affect agricultural production and lead to a sharp decline in crop yields.

This situation leads to the impossibility of using the full capacity of enterprises in industry, including in the processing, food and light industries, and the workers remain unoccupied and reduced (dismissed).

The high seasonal situation with unemployment in rural areas of the country is also closely related to seasonal and weather conditions.

Therefore, those employed in agriculture outside the season become unemployed or forced to work on a typical, temporary and one-off job during the season.

2. Existing raw materials. Raw materials are typical for the regional economy.

For example, in the Navoi, Tashkent, Bukhara and Ferghana regions, rich in natural resources, the industrial and manufacturing sectors are well developed, with a large part of the labor force in these regions being employed in these sectors.

3. Demographic factors. At the same time, demographic factors cause natural changes in the labor force and the structure of employment.

The population, including the death rate of the labor force, has an impact on employment, albeit insignificant.

If this indicator is high, it will lead to a qualitative and quantitative reduction of the country's labor force.

At the same time, as a result of diseases, especially occupational diseases and injuries, the employed population may lose their jobs and leave the labor force.

In the demographic process, fertility rates have a big impact on employment.

As a result of the birth of a child, women are temporarily excluded from the workforce and are transferred to the economically inactive population.

Women in Uzbekistan are on maternity leave until two or three years.

This means that women will be able to return to their economically active status in no less than two years.

That is why a high birth rate in the country is one of the main factors affecting the employment of women.

At present, about 700 thousand newborns are born in the country every year, which, in turn, for some time excludes a significant number of women in the labor market.

Labor migration is one of the demographic factors affecting the effective use of labor resources and changing its level.

Labor migration is the transition of labor forces from the region to another region that brings in labor incomes.

The main motive for this kind of migration is high wages and favorable working conditions for citizens.

Labor migration in the employment of the country's population is as follows: interregional and intersectoral redistribution of labor; the unemployed will be hired; increase in incomes and living standards of employees; employers have new skills and abilities, and their work experience is increasing.

4. Education system. The influence of this factor on the use of labor resources can be seen in the following:

a high level of literacy among the population, including young people, creates a qualified labor market;

leads to a competitive struggle in the labor market;

improves the quality of labor supply;

an increase in the number of young people studying on a job-by-job basis leads to an increase in the proportion of economically inactive people as labor resources;

ensuring optimal satisfaction of the needs of economic sectors in the relevant areas for qualified personnel.

5. Wage. The policy of systematic increase of wages and social benefits creates favorable conditions for solving problems of employment, improving well-being and restoring the workforce.

The transition of our country's economy to market relations, as well as the solution of a number of socio-economic tasks, requires the effective use of labor resources. This is closely related to the interests, lifestyle, development and prospects of individuals.

Ways of effective use of labor resources in Uzbekistan are the following:

strengthening of the legal framework, improvement of normative legal acts and their implementation in practice;

improvement of the wage system and achievement of its real value;

non-traditional forms of employment - for example, work at home, family business, maintenance and livestock, as well as encouraging self-employment;

Strengthen the participation of the private sector in the employment of the unemployed and support the activities of private institutions in this regard;

redistribution of labor resources through regions and sectors, and special attention to labor migration in the employment of unskilled workers.

Today, the processes of liberalization and modernization of the economy are rapidly being realized, the role and importance of labor resources in the country's socio-economic development is growing.

Effective use of labor resources in the country creates the basis for the well-being of the population and economic growth.

People who are the highest wealth of society have a powerful potential.

This potential is a very powerful factor in the development of our society.

 

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