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Sharipov Jamshid Tukhtasinovich
Head of the Department of Statistics
of Industry of the State Committee of
the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics

What is industry and what is it for? Industry is a fundamental part of the economy of each country. In the broad sense, the concept of "industry", according to the "Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron," implies "the economic activity of man, which is conducted as a trade and is aimed at creating, transforming or moving material objects", in a narrower sense, means the processing of raw materials into objects, suitable for consumption.

The emergence of industry as an independent sphere of social production is historically connected with the process of separating craft from agriculture. The development of a market economy led to a rapid growth of industry and profound transformations in the nature of industrial production, the replacement of simple co-operation with the manufactory, and then to the large machine industry-factories.

The developed industry is of great importance for the economy. The more the growth rate of industrial production, the higher the economic growth, the more diverse and more complex products the country is able to produce, the higher its level of welfare and the better the prospects for the economy of the state. If in developed countries the industry provides innovation, productivity growth and diversified exports, then in developing countries it continues to pave the way for raising the standard of living.

Modern industry is characterized by a high degree of specialization. As a result of the deepening of the social division of labor, many industries have emerged, which together form the structure of industry.

What kind of industry is it? By types of economic activity, it is divided into the following sections:
- mining industry and quarrying;
-processing industry;
-Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning;
-Water supply, sewerage, waste collection and disposal.
Mining and quarrying include coal, lignite, oil, natural gas, metal ores and other mining activities.

The processing industry includes enterprises for the production of food, beverages, tobacco, textile rubber and plastic products, clothing, leather and chemical products, basic pharmaceutical products and preparations, coke and refined products, wood and cork products, straw products and plaiting materials , paper and paper products, furniture, other non-metallic mineral products, production, repair, installation of machinery and equipment, production of motor vehicles trailers, trailers and semitrailers, other finished metal products, printing and reproduction of recorded materials, for the production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and articles thereof.

Enterprises supplying electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning ensure the production, transmission, distribution of electricity, steam and gaseous fuels.

The water supply, sewerage, waste collection and disposal companies are engaged in water treatment, water supply, removal, transportation of sewage and their processing, cleaning and treatment of cesspools, collection, processing, recycling, provision of reclamation services.

What kind of industry is more relevant for the country? In the world, the manufacturing industry is seen as a significant and often uniquely significant force for the development of the economies of countries. A strong manufacturing sector is evidence of the technological strength of the state. Its contraction or contraction is seen as a sign of economic decline. This, in particular, expresses the essential feature and importance of the manufacturing industry.

The selection of the manufacturing industry as a priority took place in Germany in the middle of the 16th century, when German economic thought was actively developing. At its sources stood F.L. Zekendorf, who spoke of the intellectual development of the nation as an essential necessity. In his opinion, the country's economic development is possible only if people develop, so the government should not only manage but also develop them intellectually.

So, back in 1581 J. Hales criticized the British economic policy of the 16th century, and wrote about the need to have a clever mind "to allow our own raw materials to be sent for processing to strangers, and then to buy back what came out of these strangers" (See: Reinert E. How rich countries became rich and why poor countries remain poor, M., 2011.). Following him, the British economist J. Carey generally proposed to impose the death penalty for the export of primary commodities from the country.

Most economists who worked before A. Smith were convinced that the economic policy of the state should promote the development of, above all, precisely the processing industry, and not the raw materials industry. They believed that it is precisely its development that allows solving the main problems, for example, such as increasing the employment of the population, increasing profits and wages, increasing the taxable base and improving monetary circulation.

What is the structure of industry in the Republic of Uzbekistan? At present, there are more than 49,000 industrial enterprises in the republic, of which 3.1% are mining and quarrying, 94.4 are manufacturing enterprises, 0.7 are engaged in power supply, gas, steam and air conditioning, 1,8% - enterprises of water supply, sewerage, collection and recycling of waste.

At the same time, the structure of industrial production as of January-December 2017 looks different, i.e. the contribution of the mining industry and the development of quarries in the total volume of industry amounted to 12.7%, the processing industry - 78.1, electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning - 8.4, water supply, sewerage, collection and disposal of waste - 0.8%.

  

International comparison of the prevailing share of industry. For comparison, in France, the share of manufacturing in the total industrial output is 85%, the Federal Republic of Germany - 77, Italy - 76, the Russian Federation - 68, the Republic of Kazakhstan - about 40 and the Republic of Uzbekistan - 78.1%.

The present condition of high - and medium - technology industries of the Republic of Uzbekistan and prospects for its development. The industry of Uzbekistan has a complex diversified and diversified structure, reflecting changes in the development of productive forces, improving the territorial division of social labor, associated with scientific and technological progress.

Diversification of production facilities, technological modernization and introduction of innovative ideas and technologies into industrial activities contributed to the emergence and development of such high - and medium - technology industries as the production of electrical equipment, computers, electronic and optical products, vehicles, chemical products, machinery and equipment, pharmaceutical products and drugs, the share of which in the total volume of industrial production was 19.1%.

It is important to note that the adoption of the Decree of the President of our country "On the formation of the Ministry of Innovative Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan" No. UP-5264 of November 29, 2017, will be an additional impetus to ensure the accelerated innovative development of all sectors of the economy and social sphere on the basis of advanced foreign experience, achievements of world science, innovative ideas, developments and technologies, including the development of the country's industry.

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