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Murodkhujaev Habibulla Abdullaevich
Head of the Department of Statistics of
Social Sphere and Sustainable Development
of the State Committee of  the Republic
of Uzbekistan on Statistics

An important role in the sustainable development of all spheres of the state and society today belongs to the wide use of the achievements of world science and innovations in the context of the globalization of the economy.

Along with the rapid development of scientific and technological potential in the world, intellectualization of the main factors of production.

The introduction of innovations has become an important factor of economic growth and competitiveness in the market. This, in turn, requires effective use of advanced scientific developments and technical achievements in the field of innovation in all areas, as well as strengthening the competitive advantage of the current economic potential. Proceeding from this, today many countries invest considerable funds in the development of scientific research and innovative activities.

In the crisis of the world economy, the task is to raise the efficiency of using funds allocated to enterprises and research teams. For these purposes, the European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS) is published annually in the countries of the European Union. Also, based on the method of analyzing the operational environment, technical performance indicators for a number of countries in the European Union were calculated. On the basis of the obtained results of efficiency, all countries were grouped into four groups: innovative leaders; innovative followers; countries are moderate innovators; catching up countries.

Based on this method, the following indicators are analyzed:
science intensity of GDP,
the number of scientists per one million people,
costs of education,% of GDP,
number of national applications for granting patents,
high-tech exports,% of industrial exports,
export of ICT,% of total exports.

Countries such as the United States, Japan, South Korea and Germany use funds more efficiently to develop innovative activities. At the same time, countries in transition use these funds inefficiently.

In general, the determining factor for the sustainable development of the innovation economy in modern conditions is the formation and development of the innovation environment of the country associated with the use of the results of scientific research and development to create fundamentally new types of products, the creation and application of new technologies for its production with subsequent introduction and sale on the market.

What is the current state of innovation in our country?

In 2016, 933 enterprises and organizations implemented innovations throughout the country, most of them, namely 893 (96% of the total number of organizations), implemented technological activities in their activities, and the remaining 40 - marketing and organizational innovations.

In 2016, about 2000 innovations were introduced by more than 900 organizations and enterprises of the Republic of Uzbekistan. At the same time, most of the innovations introduced, i. 1,816 of them were directed to the modernization of enterprises with the involvement of new efficient technologies. This means that the introduction of innovations in our country is mainly due to the import of machinery and equipment from abroad.

In addition, the number of employees engaged in scientific research and experimental development in the Republic of Uzbekistan has not changed significantly over the past 16 years.

To date, in the Republic of Uzbekistan, the cost of research and development, which is one of the most important indicators that assess the country's innovative activity, is 0.2% of GDP.

According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, in 2013 the cost of research and development in the Republic of Korea was 4.2% of GDP, in Japan this figure is 3.5% of GDP, in Germany - 2.9%, in The USA - 2,8%, in France - 2,2%, in China - 2,1%, in Great Britain and Canada - 1,6%, in the Russian Federation - 1,1%. In developing countries, this trend is relatively small.

The number of researchers, per million people, also shows that developed countries are much ahead of developing ones. In particular, in the Republic of Korea there are 6,533 researchers per million people, in Japan - 5,195, in Canada - 4,494, in Germany - 4,355, in France - 4,125, in the UK - 4,108, in the United States of America - 3 984, in the Russian Federation - 3,085, in China - 1,071, in Egypt - 581 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan -495.

 

On innovation, you can talk a lot, because of this there are different opinions. It's only natural that we ask the question: what does innovation mean when they started to enter our life? The answer to this question is of interest to many. Let's take a look at the history.

It will not be a mistake if we say that innovations have existed since the creation of mankind. Our ancestors also engaged in epochal or basic innovations that changed the life of society, advanced it forward. For example, the use of the technology of casting and forging iron in the 1200s became a major change in the history of mankind. This process began long before the formation of science and isolated a small layer of scientists who engaged in it. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to say that science is the only source of innovation. In the last centuries, when there was an innovative explosion of the industrial era, scientists were not always the initiators of the largest innovations. Their main initiators were businessmen, politicians, architects, artists and musicians.

Although innovative practice has existed for many millennia, the subject of special scientific study of innovation was only in the twentieth century.

The term "innovation" comes from the Latin. "Novatio", which means "novelty", "new idea, device or method".

The concept of "innovation" is closely related to the concepts of "change" and "development." The continuous creation of innovations forms in its totality an endless stream of potential changes. Real changes provide only a part of all the innovations created. Thus, innovation, or novelty, is understood not only the introduction of new technology and the release of new products, but also changes in the organization of business, in the management of the firm, in relations with consumers.

In the literature there are various approaches to the definition of the concept of "innovation": on the basis of content, depending on its nature or internal structure, innovations are divided into technological, organizational, marketing, and others.

American professor F. Kotler defines innovation as an idea, product or technology, launched into mass production and presented on the market, which the consumer perceives as completely new or possessing some unique properties.

Economist J. Schumpeter was one of the first scientists who in the 1900s in the scientific use of the term "innovations". He treats innovation as a new scientific organizational combination of production factors, motivated by entrepreneurial spirit. Its concept includes the following five types of innovation: introduction of new products; the introduction into circulation of new methods of production; opening of new markets; the development of new sources of supply of raw materials or other basic values; creation of new market structures for an industry.

In this aspect, without interest some ideas about innovation P. Drucker, considered to be the "father of modern management" and one of the most famous people in the world.

Drucker often repeated the phrase: "Tomorrow is an opportunity." He believed that the most important characteristic of the company is its ability to predict future opportunities and invest in them money.

According to P. Drucker, the generally accepted view of the innovation process, aimed exclusively at developing the product or expanding the brand, does not reflect the essence of the issue. He believed that a true innovation requires a radical change in the expectations of customers.

Drucker clearly believed: "If you do not understand what innovation is, you do not understand business." An example of true innovation, as it was represented by P. Drucker, is the company "Starbucks". Starting in 1971 with a single cafe, by 2006, Starbucks had become the largest company with up to 12,000 sales outlets in 37 countries. "Starbucks" was created not only to offer the consumer a cup of coffee more delicious than usual. It was an outdated view of the retail coffee trade. The management of the company had a bigger idea: to make Starbucks cafe a special place on the way between the house and the office, a place where people can relax from the wild pace of their life. In other words, the company went far beyond the simple process of grinding, boiling and filtering a package of coffee beans; it changed the expectations of consumers

One of the greatest gifts that P. Drucker left to future generations is the creative heritage that teaches managers and employees of companies how to create the future. The next thought of Drucker on innovation is important: the entrepreneur creates new resources that bring wealth through the following four tools:

  1. Continuous work aimed at abandoning the past and freeing up space for innovation.
  2. Constant search for opportunities.
  3. Turning these opportunities into value for buyers.
  4. Strategic allocation of resources.

Today, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Eurostat offer their interpretation of the term "innovation". So, innovation is the introduction into use of any new or significantly improved product (product or service) or process, a new marketing method or a new organizational method in business practice, workplace organization or external relations. Proceeding from all this, innovation activity is all scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial activities that actually lead to the implementation of innovations, or conceived for this purpose.

Of course, today in an era of striving for innovation, as well as increasing competition in all areas, the most important development factor is the abandonment of the inefficient past and the opening up of broader ways of innovation development.

It's not for nothing that today the head of our state insists on the rapid implementation of innovations in all spheres of society. Indeed, innovation is an important factor for achieving a high level, such as in developed countries. They allow to take a worthy place in the world community.

Based on the above, in our country is developing an effective mechanism for implementation of scientific developments in the real economy.

In particular, in the Strategy of Action on the five priority development directions of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021, special attention is paid to stimulating research and innovation activities, creating effective mechanisms for introducing scientific and innovative achievements into practice, education at higher educational institutions and research institutes of scientific-experimental specialized laboratories, centers of high technologies and technoparks.

Along with this, in the course of a direct dialogue with the people in the regions of the republic, the President of our country sets specific tasks for the revival of scientific potential in all regions and the effective use of intellectual potential in the integrated development of territories, the active involvement of young people in research activities. In the solution of these problems, it is very important to mobilize scientific research to solve real problems in the social and economic sphere, to ensure close integration of science and production, and, in turn, to create mechanisms for increasing the efficiency of the use of scientific and technological developments by scientists.

In order to further strengthen the role of academic science in the innovative development of the economy, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted Decree No. -PP-2789 of February 17, 2017 "On measures to further improve the activities of the Academy of Sciences, organization, management and financing of research activities". This resolution provided for the implementation of a wide range of targeted measures.

Also, in accordance with Presidential Decree No. UP-5099 of June 30, 2017 "On measures to radically improve the conditions for the development of the information technology industry in the country" in order to create favorable conditions for the formation and active development of high-tech industries based on the use of ICT, further deepening the integration of science, education and production in this industry through the provision of additional benefits and preferences to developers and customers of products are informational technologies, increasing the export of ICT products, as well as stimulating the attraction of domestic and foreign investments, the Innovation Center for the Support of Development and Implementation of Information Technologies <<Mirzo Ulugbek Innovation Center>>.

At the same time, in order to ensure the accelerated innovative development of all sectors of the economy and social sphere on the basis of advanced foreign experience, modern achievements of world science, innovative ideas, developments and technologies, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No.UP-5264 of November 29, development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In accordance with this decree, the following were defined as the main directions of innovative development of the Republic of Uzbekistan:

creation of a strategic planning system that allows to form future models of innovative development of priority spheres and industries on the basis of long-term scenarios of increasing the country's intellectual and technological potential;

the introduction of innovative forms of public administration that ensure the optimization and simplification of procedures for the provision of public services, increasing the efficiency of government administration;

comprehensive support and stimulation of research and innovation activities, especially creative ideas and developments of the younger generation, and the creation of favorable conditions for the active participation of talented youth in this activity;

expansion of cooperation with the leading foreign (international) organizations in the field of innovative activity, including through their involvement in the domestic market of know-how, nanotechnology and high-tech products (works, services) and a number of other similar tasks.

In turn, it will not be an exaggeration to say that the announcement by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2018 as the Year of support of active entrepreneurship, innovative ideas and technologies has become an important step on the path of innovative development of our country.

At the same time, I want to quote the words of Steve Jobs, the founder of the world-famous company Apple: "Innovation distinguishes the leader from the catch-up."

In general, our common goal should be to provide a favorable ground for our country to be at the level of world leaders in creating innovations.

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