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Begmatov Sardor Mahamadzhonovich
Head of the Department of Maintenance and System
Maintenance of Statistical Registers

In the introductory part we explain, giving answers to the following questions:

1-st:  What is the demography of enterprises?

2-nd: What is the statistics of entrprises registers and what is it for?

So, what is the demography of enterprises? Currently, the so-called demography of enterprises is actively developing - the scientific direction related to the study of the state of enterprises in the sector of the economy, which is periodically changed in time, in particular, creation, inaction, liquidation, different forms of oligopolistic behavior, the formation of affinity groups and etc. This scientific area is a fairly new direction, therefore it has not been fully investigated in the domestic and foreign economic literature, infuses its urgency.

Demographics of enterprises (business demography) - section of enterprise statistics, which gives a description of the number and composition (structure) of a set of enterprises that operate at a certain time in a particular territory and in certain economic conditions.

Subject of enterprise demography – this state and development of enterprises, as well as the degree and nature of their activity in the economy. The specificity of the scientific method of enterprise demography is determined by the use of analysis methods characteristic of demographic statistics with a view to studying the enterprise sector as a set of economic agents. The main task of enterprise demography is the analysis of creation, inaction and liquidation of enterprises (legal entities) by types of activity for a certain period of time. Accordingly, the scientific method of enterprise demography includes such techniques as analysis of their survival and activity

To study the nature of the activity of enterprises, the grouping method is used, which makes it possible to systematize and classify all the facts and the method of generalizing indicators collected as a result of statistical observation, which makes it possible to characterize the phenomena and processes studied using statistical variables. The main grouping characteristics in the construction of a system of business demographics are the characteristics of the age of enterprises. These methods used in the study of enterprise demographics make it possible to identify the interrelations and scale of phenomena, and also to determine the patterns of their development. When developing the indicators, the basic methods and principles of analysis used in demographic statistics are used.

The demography of enterprises is traditional for the western and new directions in domestic statistics. Tracking demographic processes allows you to get an idea of ​​the real processes taking place in the economy, to assess how sustainable entrepreneurship is in the circumstances: marketing research has been conducted to create a truly new business (new enterprises), there has been an increase in the number of enterprises - the result of restructuring, reorganization, etc. For example, the analysis of the dynamics of the number of operating enterprises - legal entities and their impact on the level of production should be made inseparably linked with the mode of their formation, which, in particular, creates new production capacities and jobs, and, therefore, improving the social position of the region, rather than restructuring existing enterprises.

The solution of the task of organizing work on their demography is carried out in several stages. So, at the first stage, the statistical register information fund is used to build a number of analytical tables that characterize the composition and structure of registered enterprises in terms of types of activities, organizational and legal forms and regions. The data on the average annual number of employees in the register make it possible to group enterprises by this indicator and determine their type, for example, micro-firms, small enterprises and etc.

Also at the first stage five unique non-accounting indicators are being developed: the number of registered, operating and inactive, newly created and liquidated enterprises (legal entities) for the period under review. These indicators are developed in the following forms: by types of economic activity, by subjects, by region, etc. The second stage in the study of the demography of enterprises can be considered the introduction of structural surveys into statistical practice, the results of which, reflecting their state and development, allow to significantly supplement and broaden the notion of demographic changes taking place. With the help of structural surveys, such work on the study and evaluation of enterprise demographics can be developed, such as: updating the indicators of the statistical register in terms of comparing the periods of registration, starting economic activity, assessing the level of readiness for economic activity; accounting structure and distribution of the authorized capital of legal entities between shareholders (founders); identification of the presence of subsidiaries and affiliates; the establishment of financial ties and their influence on the formation of production structures that unite enterprises, regardless of the type of their activities; registration of the methods of formation of enterprises and the changes occurring with them (including allotment, absorption, merger, liquidation); analysis of the system of indicators of differentiation and concentration of enterprises; obtaining information on the structure of parent enterprises, the availability of separate units, their location and activities; actualization of the sectoral affiliation (changes in the main type of activity of enterprises in accordance with the established procedure, connected, first of all, with their adaptation to the changing economic situation).

Given that only large enterprises take part in structural surveys, the third stage in the development of their demography is the formation of information on small enterprises, which allows assessing the dynamics and trends in the state of activity. Such information is necessary to identify the aggregates of "legally" and "actually" existing small businesses. The term "legally existing small enterprises" includes the totality of all small enterprises entered in the statistical register. The term "actually existing small enterprises" extends to those that are not included in the register of idle (liquidated) enterprises under regulatory and legislative acts. Data on the demographics of small businesses will allow us to assess not only the duration of their lives, but also the active and damped phases of their life cycle.

Information about enterprises at different stages of their life cycle as the basis for making decisions on supporting small businesses is primarily necessary for the executive branch. The information being developed will answer the following questions: when support is needed (at the organizational stage, in the middle of the life of a small enterprise, or only those that approach the "mature age" need to be supported), how the enterprise develops, at what stage of "life" it has the largest activity. Comparing the life expectancy and the distribution of such indicator as the proceeds from the sale of products, works, services for the "actually" existing small enterprises, it is possible to obtain reasonable criteria for assessing the "vital activity" of the enterprise.

Information on the demographics of small businesses is important not only for a more meaningful characterization of small businesses, but, also, it is the basis for making informed management decisions about supporting a particular group of small businesses. The development of the work on the study of demographic changes presupposes the formation of a sample of the observed enterprises and the maintenance of its invariance for a long period of time. This approach will make it possible to use foreign experience (INSEE methodology in particular), apply the tools developed by foreign specialists and obtain comparable information characterizing demographic changes and their characteristics, depending on the state and development of such a direction of the economy as "enterprise demographics". A new and promising direction of studying the demography of enterprises is the compilation of a table of the main material capital - primarily the active part of fixed assets. This approach is based on the theoretical interpretation of the massive renewal of active elements of fixed capital as the material basis of the economic cycle (short and medium waves). This, first of all, is due to the irreplaceability of losses from moral depreciation, which arise as a result of the appearance of fundamentally new, more productive elements of fixed capital. In this case, it becomes necessary to replace the fixed assets before they are completely physically worn out and before the end of their service life.

Fundamentally new means of production at a certain moment become available to all economic agents, and most enterprises react to this situation, which gives the processes of renewal, retirement of the active part of fixed assets a massive character, allowing to build a model of "survival" of fixed assets in the form of mortality tables. Similar tables today are built for active elements of fixed capital, but not for him. This is due to the fact that the passive part of fixed assets does not participate directly in the production process, the operation period is several times longer than the life of the active part, their retirement in the aggregate of enterprises is distributed unevenly during the actual service life. Therefore, the renewal of the passive part of fixed capital does not affect the short and medium waves, but the long wave of the economic cycle, and the construction of a mortality table for this group of fixed assets is currently not possible.

What is the statistics of entrprises registers and  what is it for?

The statistical register of enterprises is a multi-purpose information system in which administrative data on economic entities are linked, reflecting the processes of their creation, reorganization, amendments to constituent documents or liquidation, with data necessary for the organization of statistical surveys. In the world statistical practice, the statistical register is one of the most important and effective statistical tools.

The statistical register is a list of respondents with information about them necessary for organizing state statistical observations.

Goals and objectives. The most important goal of creating a statistical register is the formation of a complete, reliable and up-to-date information basis in the state statistics bodies for organizing and conducting state statistical observations.

The statistical register of enterprises and organizations (in the future we use the term "statregister"), containing information about organizations and other statistical units, is a key link in economic statistics. The Statregister is not only a regularly updated database, but also contains information on the demographics of enterprises and organizations. With the acceleration of the processes of integration and globalization of the economy, it became more difficult to maintain, update and maintain the base of the statregister. At the same time, the improvement of the statregister is considered not only in the context of providing reliable information on statistics, but also as a key element contributing to the development of economic sectors in the country.

In the CIS countries, an important process of harmonizing the statistical methodology with European and international statistical standards is now taking place. The success of this process depends to a large extent on the quality of the base of the Stable Registrar in terms of completeness, reliability and international comparability of the data contained in it. UNIDO is currently working on the implementation of the project "Improving the Statistics Industry and Developing Statistical Indicators for the Analysis of the Development of Industries in the CIS Countries", the main goal of which is the harmonization of statistics. This report is prepared within the framework of the project and describes the experience of conducting a stasis in different countries of the CIS. The presence of a land register in the country is an important issue when collecting and preparing statistical data, on the basis of which indicators of its economic development are developed. As a rule, the completeness, coverage and quality of information in the master plan are different in different countries, so some degree of coherence and standardization of national registers is needed.

The Stegregistrs provide a common basis for the collection, development, transfer and evaluation of statistical information on the structure, economic activities, competitiveness and performance of enterprises in the world. On this basis, various statistical surveys are carried out, including economic censuses. In addition, the statregisters are the main source of information on the demography of enterprises, as they allow you to track the processes of creation and closure of enterprises, their changes (merger or division of enterprises), as well as structural changes in the economy.
In recent years, world statistics have been studying the processes of globalization of the economy and the creation of transnational corporations. Users need information about these phenomena, since the emerging multinational companies to some extent connect the economies of different countries. Accounting in the statistical register of enterprises belonging to transnational groups creates a good basis for sectoral statistics: international trade, balance of payments, foreign direct investment, labor market, etc

Also, the issue of establishing economic relationships between enterprises by identifying groups, parameters of large and complex enterprises (complex in composition), is provided, which is provided on the basis of a statutor. The statistical observation of precisely the groups of enterprises, and not of the individual units that make up them, reduces the burden on the reporting units. The constant emergence of new requirements for users of statistical information poses the task of maximizing the burden on enterprises providing statistical reporting. To help in the resolution of this conflict, the rationalization of the information collection system, including with the help of a statregister, is possible.

Qualitative statregisters allow more efficient and economical distribution of surveys between different enterprises and, by using the same information for different purposes, reduce the total amount of information collected.

The effectiveness of the national statistical system is determined by the quality of the information of the registered student, the fullest coverage of the monitoring units throughout the country and the frequency of updating the register's information fund. Statregister who meets these requirements can be recognized as an authoritative source of data on enterprises.

In the world practice of keeping statregisters, administrative sources of information about enterprises are increasingly being used. In order to avoid multiple requests sent to enterprises about the same information, you can use data that has already been transferred by enterprises to other administrative agencies (agencies). This is in line with the fundamental principles of official UNS statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 1994 and recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). One of these principles states that data for statistical purposes can be drawn from any source - from statistical surveys or through administrative reporting. However, taking into account the size of registers and their fillability, their support in the actual state only on the basis of statistical survey data is impossible.

According to the Eurostat manual on the register of enterprises, administrative sources are sources containing information that was originally not collected for statistical purposes. In most countries, for statistical purposes, the most frequently used data are tax authorities, for example, enterprise reports on value-added tax and income tax, or information of bodies that register enterprises. The relative advantage of using administrative data is that they, in some cases, provide the ability to more often obtain statistical data without additional costs for enterprises. Administrative sources often give full or almost complete coverage of the population concerned, while sample surveys cover only a part of it. Thus, the use of administrative sources excludes sampling errors, allows to avoid or substantially reduce the number of "no answers" and provides more accurate and detailed estimates of various sub-sets of enterprises.

Coverage, as a rule, is one of the key parameters in terms of assessing the quality of the construction of statistical registers, since such registers should cover all enterprises with full or part-time employment.

When using data from administrative sources, a link should be established between the units in the administrative data source and the corresponding units in the statregister. Such a comparison is relatively simple to organize when a single identification number is used, i.e. and in the administrative source, and in the statregister the same object must have the same identification number.          

Administrative data sources can be used to successfully verify the data of the statregister, for example, addresses, names of accounting objects, or to provide the possibility of using additional information for conducting statistical surveys.

In some countries, administrative sources of the private sector are used - private companies carry out activities to collect information on enterprises and can provide it to statistical authorities. For example, information is used about the interrelationships of enterprises, while access to these sources is easier, but it is usually carried out for a fee.

The decision of the specified problems is carried out by each country taking into account development of the state statistical system and rates of harmonization of the national statistics with the international statistical standards. Methodological regulations for the statregister contain information on the creation, functioning, sources of updating of the statregister (its administrative part and the statistical register of the Unified Information System of State Statistics of the Republic of Uzbekistan).
Classification is a system of subordinate concepts in any branch of knowledge, depending on their characteristics. Classification is an important component of statistical methodology, since it allows to have a standard description, to systematize and group statistical information in different sections according to uniform rules, and to ensure, through the application of common information standards, the technological compatibility of information systems and resources at the regional, state and intercountry levels .

Classifiers. When running a statregister, state-wide classifiers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, statistical classifiers and other directories used to distribute the objects of the fixed-stats for certain characteristics (characteristics) are used.

The experience of the CIS countries and Uzbekistan in the management of registers of enterprises and organizations and their application in statistics.

Over the past two decades, the main task in the field of statistics for the CIS countries has been the transition from planned economy statistics to statistics reflecting market relations. This process consisted in the consistent harmonization of national statistical methodologies in accordance with international standards, which continues today.
The current and priority direction within the framework of reforming the national statistics of the CIS countries is the work on the creation of a statist register containing information on economic entities subject to statistical observation. Launched in the 1990s, this activity also currently occupies a significant place in the work of the statistical services of the CIS countries. At the same time, all CIS countries have administrative registers of enterprises, and / or statregisters, and / or registers of statistical units. However, not all CIS countries successfully use the statregister in practice, and therefore this work should be given considerable attention, since the quality of surveys and the reliability of official statistics depend on this work. Basically, statistical registers of most CIS countries comply with international statistical standards and requirements in the field of business registers.

Other particular criteria for assessing the register of enterprises are: timeliness, clarity, accessibility for surveys, comparability in time and processing of confidential information.

A legal entity - an organization that has separate property in the ownership, economic management or operational management, bears an independent responsibility for its obligations, can acquire and exercise property and personal non-property rights in its own name, fulfill obligations, be a plaintiff and a defendant in court, the established procedure, state registration as a legal entity or recognized as such by a legislative act.

Types of legal entities. A legal entity can be an organization pursuing the extraction of profit as the main objective of its activity (commercial organization) or having no profit as such a goal (non-profit organization).

A commercial organization can be created in the form of an economic partnership and a society, a production cooperative, a unitary enterprise and in another form stipulated by legislative acts.

A non-profit organization can be created in the form of a public association, a public foundation, an institution financed by the owner, and in another form provided for by legislative acts.

A non-profit organization may engage in entrepreneurial activities within the limits appropriate to its statutory purposes.

In Uzbekistan, the management of the statregister enterprises and organizations plays a very important role in the country's economy and is widely used as the Unified State Register of Enterprises and Organizations (hereinafter referred to as the USREO).

The Unified State Register of Enterprises and Organizations (USREO)
- is an automated system containing periodically updated data of reference and reference nature, and provides state accounting and identification of enterprises and organizations on the basis of a unified system of classifications. In order to develop and maintain the USREO of all forms of ownership and management in accordance with the needs of the republic and the principles of the formation of an international register, the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan decided to create a unified state register of enterprises and organizations of all forms of ownership. The resolution "On the Unified State Register of Enterprises and Organizations of All Forms of Ownership and Economy" was adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan on November 17, 1994, No. 555, and also by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers "On Approval of the Regulation on the Unified State Register of Enterprises and Organizations" dated September 25, 2012 Part number №PKM-274 was partially modified.

On the basis of these normative documents, explanations were given on the USREO, the goals and tasks for its management were stated. The main developer and holder of the USREO is the State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The entities of the USREO are enterprises, organizations, business associations located on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, separate subdivisions of enterprises and institutions, other economic entities of all organizational and legal forms that have the status of a legal entity that have been registered in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

USREO is a state information resource as part of a unified information system of state statistics. USREO is conducted in the state language.

Contents of the USREO Information Fund:

The Information Fund of the USREO includes the following information about legal entities that were established and passed state registration in the order established by legislation in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan:
- identification indicators - name, code of the legal entity (MCEO), taxpayer identification number (TIN);

classification indicators of a legal entity - characterizing the main type of activity, location, organizational and legal form, belonging to small business entities, entering the structure of state and economic management bodies;

reference indicators - postal addresses, telephone numbers, information about founders, other information on state registration (liquidation) of legal entities. Code of the legal entity (MCEO - the main code of the enterprise, organization) is an individual number assigned to a legal entity when included in the USREO and used in the process of statistical observations.

MCEO consists of eight numeric digits, the first seven digits represent programmatically generated random numbers, the eighth digit is the code protection (single-digit control number). MCEO is assigned once, is not canceled in connection with the liquidation of a legal entity and is not re-assigned for issuance to another legal entity.

To establish classification indicators, economic and statistical classifiers are used to organize statistical work. In order to unify the exchange of information between statistical bodies, tax and registering authorities, the USREO uses the taxpayer identification number (TIN).

The management of the USREO. The management of the USREO includes the entry of an appropriate entry into the electronic database in cases of state registration of a legal entity, changes and additions to the constituent documents of a legal entity in the event of the reorganization of a legal entity, liquidation or termination of activities, receipt from the registering authority of information on a financial entity's non- he statutory fund in accordance with the terms established by law, as well as his being in the process of a voluntary face termination of the liquidation process, changes in the postal address of the legal entity, changes in the principal type of activity of the legal entity and its average annual number of employees on the basis of annual state statistical reporting, changes in the departmental ownership of the legal entity on the basis of information received from its founders or state and economic management bodies.

The information necessary for the maintenance and updating of the USREO information fund is provided free of charge by the registration authorities, tax authorities, state property management bodies and other state bodies that create and maintain registers and information databases on legal entities. The procedure for making entries in the electronic database of the USREO and their formats is established by the State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The management of the USREO is carried out electronically using software and technology tools used in the system of state statistics.

In order to prevent the loss of information, the USREO monthly forms its backup copy as of the 1st day of the month on electronic media, which is stored in places that exclude its loss simultaneously with the original.

Functions of organizations involved in the management of the USREO. USREO is conducted by the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics, its territorial bodies in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts and the city of Tashkent, districts and cities. The State Statistics Committee of Uzbekistan provides:
development of methodological bases and directions of development of the USREO;
functioning and administration of the electronic database of the USREO and access to it in the established order to the bodies participating in its management; methodical guidance and coordination of works on registration and modification of information on registered legal entities; maintaining a system of statistical classifications;
storage of backup copies of the USREO and its information security; interdepartmental exchange of information with state bodies. The bodies of state statistics in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts and the city of Tashkent, districts and cities provide:
processing of the information of the USREO coming from the registration authorities, and preventing the loss, distortion, forgery of information; timely change of classification indicators in the USREO on the basis of primary statistical data obtained in the process of conducting state statistical observations; interaction with bodies that carry out state registration, tax authorities and state property management bodies in the relevant territory.

The order of information-reference service for users of the USREO. Identification, classification indicators from the USREO, as well as postal addresses, telephone numbers, information on the founders of legal entities, the numbers and dates of state registration (amendments to the constituent documents, exceptions from the unified state register) of legal entities are open and generally available, other indicators of the USREO represent confidential information.

USREO users can be legal entities and individuals interested in this information.

The state of the demography of enterprises and organizations in the Republic of Uzbekistan as of January 1, 2018, based on the database of the USREO.

 As a result of reforms carried out to further liberalize the economy and modernize the country, the number of legal entities (excluding farmer and dehkan farms) as of January 1, 2018 amounted to 285.3 thousand units. and, compared with the data as of January 1, 2017, increased by 6.4%. The largest number of operating enterprises and organizations are in Tashkent city (61,300), Tashkent (26,900), Fergana (25,600), Andijan (24,600) Samarkand (21.1 thousand), Namangan (19.9 thousand), Kashkadarya (18.5 thousand) areas.

Analysis of the activities of existing enterprises and organizations by types of economic activities as of January 1, 2018 showed that of the total number of operating enterprises and organizations, the share of enterprises and organizations in the sphere of trade is 22.1%, industry - 17.2%, construction - 8 , 5%, agriculture, forestry and fisheries - 7.4%, accommodation and food services - 6.0%, transportation and storage - 4.2%, information and communication - 2.2%, in health and social services services - 2.0% in other spheres of economic activity - 30.4% .

Enterprises with participation of foreign capital. The Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan pays special attention to foreign economic activity. A great deal has been done in the republic to create enterprises with foreign investments, to create new jobs, reduce imports and increase exports.

The number of operating enterprises with the participation of foreign capital as of January 1, 2018 was 5517 units.

The level of growth in the number of operating enterprises with the participation of foreign capital, compared with 2004, increased by 2.3 times.

Of the operating 5517 enterprises with foreign capital participation by type of economic activity, there are 2438 units per industry. (44.2%), trade 1055 (19.1%), construction of 291 (5.3%), services for accommodation and meals 220 (4.0%), transportation and storage of 161 (2.9%), agriculture, forestry and fisheries 159 (2.9%), information and communication 126 (2.3%), health and social services 74 (1.3%), as well as other types 993 units. (18.0%). From the data given, it can be seen that the bulk of operating enterprises with foreign capital are accounted for by industry and trade, the least in the sphere of health and the provision of social services, information and communications.

Share of operating enterprises with participation of foreign capital by types of economic activity,%

The number of small businesses and microfirms. The government's decisions on supporting small business entities have significantly expanded the conditions for the development of entrepreneurship in the republic. As of January 1, 2018, the number of operating small businesses in the Republic of Uzbekistan was more than 229.6 thousand units. This indicator exceeds the indicators of the same period last year by 9.1%. The main part of operating small businesses is in the city of Tashkent - 52.3 thousand units. (22.8%), Tashkent - 21.7 thousand units. (9.4%), Andijan - 20.3 thousand units. (8.9%) and Ferghana - 20.2 thousand units. (8.8%) of the region.

If we consider the structure of operating small businesses, then small enterprises make up 8.2%, micro-firms 91.8%.

Undoubtedly, the statistics of business registers in the activities of modern official statistics plays a very important role, since this area is quite a new direction and, from the scientific point of view, it must be explored, developed and implemented in practice, which will provide the most realistic idea of the ongoing processes in the economy.

 

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