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1. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION

As it is known, pre-school education, which is the beginning of continuous education, plays an important role in the development of children and preparation for systematic education. In 2016, children (aged 3 to 6 years) attending pre-school educational establishments in the Republic of Uzbekistan were 23.8% of the population in the corresponding age group. As of 1 January 2017, the number of pre-school educational establishments in the country was 5138 units, of which 3,065 are located in urban areas and 2,050 in rural areas. Of 690,975 children, 53% are boys and 47% are girls.

Figure 1

Children attending pre-school institutions, in percentage (2013-2016)

Table 1

Main indicators of pre-school educational establishments in 2016, units

Number of pre-school educational establishments

Number of places

Number of children

Of them, girls

Number of children per 100 place, people

5138

721760

690975

326905

96

Urban

3065

486054

457511

219188

94

Rural

2050

230889

204089

97298

88

 

 Figure 2

Distribution of pre-school educational establishments in rural and urban areas, by regions (units) (2016)

Increasing efficiency of the use of existing places in pre-school educational establishments is shown in Figure 3. There were 76 children per 100 places in 2010 and by 2016, this indicator reached 96. This means that the demand for pre-school educational establishments is growing.

Figure 3

The number of children in pre-school educational establishments and the number of children per 100 places in the dynamics (2010-2016)

When analyzing the number of children per 100 places by regions, there was a scarcity of places in the Andizhan, Kashkadarya, Samarkand regions and Tashkent city (Figure 4). The scarcity of places in pre-school educational establishments was also observed in rural areas of the Djizhak region and in urban area of Navoi region.

Figure 4

The average number of children per 100 places by regions in 2016

The number of pedagogical staff working in preschool establishments is 59688 people, of which 21.9% has higher education, and 76.4% has secondary specialized pedagogical education. In the total number of teaching staff, those who have 15 years of work experience accounted for 30.6 percent, including 30.2 percent in rural areas.

Figure 5

Pedagogical staff of pre-school educational establishments, in 2016.

 

2. GENERAL SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN.

In the 2016/2017 school year, there were 4,825,000 students enrolled in 9719 general education schools, of which 2,252,900 were enrolled in 6,015 general education schools in rural areas. The number of general education schools increased by 13.6 percent (8557) compared to 1991.However, 67.2 percent of them operate on double shifts and 0.1 percent-in three shifts. When analyzing this indicator by regions, the highest percentage was observed in Djizhak (81.0%), Karakalpakstan (78.1%), Surkhandarya (74.9%) and Tashkent (69.3%) regions. In general education establishments, 1314.8 thousand pupils are studying in the second and third shifts (Fig. 7).

Figure 6

Main indicators of general secondary education (1991-2016)

Figure 7

Distribution of general education establishments by shifts, in percentage (2012-2016)

The Republic of Uzbekistan is on the same level as developed countries in terms of enrollment in the general secondary education, especially, in primary education (Figure 8).

Figure 8

Primary education enrolment rate of the population (%)

Source: State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics (2016) and UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015-2016)

The student- teacher ratio reflects important information about the state of education in the country. This indicator is calculated by the ratio of the total number of students to the total number of teachers. In 2016, the number of students per teacher was 12.06 in general education schools of the Republic of Uzbekistan (figure 9).

Figure 9

The number of students per teacher by regions, 2016

In 2016, the number of students per teacher, especially in the Tashkent city and Tashkent region, was appreciable higher than in other regions compared to 1991 (Figure 10).

Figure 10

Changes in the number of students per teacher by regions for 1991-2016

 

3. SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL SECONDARY EDUCATION
IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN.

In the Republic of Uzbekistan, the number of academic lyceums was 46 in 2000, and in 2016, it reached 144. The number of professional colleges was 241 in 2000 and it reached 1,422 units in 2016 (Figure 11).

 

 

Table 2

Main indicators of specialized vocational secondary education (2000-2016)

 

Academic lyceums

Students

(thousand

people)

Teachers

(thousand

people)

Professional colleges

Students

(thousand

people)

Teachers

(thousand

people)

             

2000

46

9,8

1,8

241

59,5

9,1

2005

77

37,3

4,4

878

853,3

55,6

2010

143

108,3

9,3

1396

1514,8

106,0

2016

144

101,3

9,5

1422

1358,1

100,2

 

Figure 11

Number of academic lyceums and professional colleges (2000-2016)

In the system of specialized vocational secondary education in the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2016, the number of students in academic lyceums was101339 people, and in professional colleges - 1358064. This indicator has grown 10 times in academic lyceums and 23 times in professional colleges compared to the number of students in 2000 (Figure 12).

Figure 12

Dynamics of the number of students of academic lyceums and professional colleges, thousand students (2000-2016)

The slight decline in the number of students of academic lyceums and professional colleges in 2016 fully reflects the demographic situation in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

4. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN.

The changes are ongoing in system of higher education of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The number of higher educational establishments was 52 in 1991and by 2016, this indicator increased by 34.6% (70 institutions) (Fig. 13).

Table 3

Main indicators of higher education (1991-2016)

 

Number of higher educational establishments

Number of students
(thousand people)

Teaching staff (thousand people)

Number of students per teacher

1991

52

340,9

...

...

1995

58

192,1

19,9

9,6

2000

61

183,6

18,4

10,0

2005

62

278,7

23,1

12,1

2010

65

274,5

23,0

11,9

2016

70

268,3

24,0

11,2

 

Figure 13

The number of higher educational establishments and the number of students per teacher (1991-2016)

In the higher educational establishments there were 12.1 students per teacher in 2005 and 11.2 students in 2016.

Figure 14

The ratio of students per teacher in higher educational establishments in some countries

Source: State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics (2016) and UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015-2016)

From the above it follows that Uzbekistan attaches great importance to higher education. For several years, branches of national leading universities have been opened in the regions and branches of foreign leading universities have been opened in the Tashkent city. In addition, new faculties have been introduced.

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